The Republic of Uganda is a developing, landlocked country located in Central-East Africa. Uganda borders Kenya, Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Rwanda and Tanzania. Lake Victoria also borders Uganda in the south. The British introduced English to Uganda in the late nineteenth century. After independence, English became the official language of Uganda, being used in government, commerce and education. There are approximately forty different areas that comprise Uganda, and these are divided according to their linguistic similarities.
After years of political instability, the 1995 constitution established Uganda as a republic with legislative, judicial and executive branches. Since attaining power, heavy restrictions on opposition political parties have been implemented in attempts to reduce sectarian violence but have resulted in a virtual one-party state. The porousness of Uganda’s western, northern and northeastern borders as well as instability in neighbouring South Sudan and the DRC continue to have a negative impact on stability. Civil unrest related to tribal issues has sparked intermittent violence in the capital, Kampala.
Uganda has overcome years of misguided economic policies and insecurity to become one of the wealthiest countries in the region, though it remains poor by global standards. Uganda enjoys substantial natural resources such as fertile soils, regular rainfall, mineral deposits of copper and cobalt, crude oil and natural gas. Government modernisation campaigns intended to encourage foreign investment have been widely lauded, although bureaucracy and corruption have hampered these efforts. Despite investment, infrastructure remains relatively underdeveloped throughout most of the country.