What is unconscious bias? Exploring pros, cons, and relevant scenarios

May 12, 2023

    Unconscious bias

    What is unconscious bias?

    Unconscious bias, also known as implicit bias, refers to the automatic preferences or aversions people hold towards specific individuals or groups. These biases can be positive or negative, often causing individuals to treat others unfairly based on various identity factors such as age, gender, race, or socioeconomic background. Such unconscious biases can manifest in multiple ways, including how individuals judge, evaluate, and interact with others from different backgrounds.

    Though unconscious bias is an innate human trait, its consequences can have both pros and cons. 

    On the positive side, unconscious biases can serve as mental shortcuts for decision-making, helping to save time and energy by highlighting preferences or aversions based on previous experiences or learned behaviours. However, the negative consequences of unconscious bias are far more prevalent, as it can lead to discrimination, unequal opportunities, and perpetuation of stereotypes across various aspects of society

    There are numerous use cases where understanding and addressing unconscious bias is vital. In the workplace, unconscious bias can impact hiring processes, promotions, and team dynamics, leading to unequal opportunities for diverse employees. In the education sector, it can affect how teachers interact with and evaluate students from varying backgrounds. In healthcare, unconscious bias may influence diagnoses, treatment plans, and doctor-patient relationships. By becoming aware of the prevalence and potential outcomes of unconscious biases in various sectors, individuals can work towards reducing their impact and fostering greater equality and inclusivity (Harvard Business Review)

    Types of unconscious bias

    Affinity Bias

    Affinity bias occurs when people unconsciously favour those who share similar characteristics, backgrounds, or experiences with them. This might cause them to judge or evaluate these individuals more positively.For example, hiring managers may lean towards candidates who graduated from the same university as they did, even if other candidates possess more relevant skills.

    Confirmation Bias

    Confirmation bias involves seeking, interpreting, and favouring information or evidence that confirms one's existing beliefs or hypotheses.This type of bias may lead individuals to overlook contradictory information, which could affect decision-making in various contexts. For instance, a manager might only consider employees' positive feedback, which reinforces their belief that a particular colleague is underperforming.

    Halo Effect

    The halo effect happens when people's overall impression of a person influences their perception of that person's individual attributes. In other words, if someone is viewed positively in one aspect, they are likely to be regarded positively in other aspects as well. For example, a high-performing employee may be perceived as a great team player even if they struggle with interpersonal skills.

    Horn Effect

    Conversely, the horn effect represents the negative counterpart of the halo effect. If a person has a negative overall impression of someone, they are likely to perceive that individual's specific attributes negatively too.An employee who frequently shows up late to work, for instance, might be considered less creative or less competent in their job, even if this isn't necessarily the case.

    In conclusion, understanding unconscious biases, such as affinity bias, confirmation bias, the halo effect, and the horn effect, can help individuals recognise these subconscious prejudices and work towards overcoming them. Developing awareness of such biases is essential for promoting inclusive behaviour and fostering greater diversity in various aspects of life.

    What is hiring bias?

    Hiring bias refers to the conscious or unconscious opinions formed about a candidate or an employee based on predetermined notions. These biases can influence the outcome of an interview, and sometimes candidates are evaluated based on factors other than their actual qualifications and skills.

    Imagine you're hosting a cooking competition and you're tasked with selecting the best chef to lead your team. You're excited to see what each candidate brings to the table, but as they start cooking, you begin to notice something strange. You're drawn to the chef who reminds you of yourself - same background, same interests, same style of cooking. Without realising it, you've fallen victim to affinity bias, where you favor someone who is similar to you.

    This type of bias is all too common in the hiring process, and it can prevent the best candidate from being selected. Hiring bias can be conscious or unconscious, and it can affect decisions based on predetermined notions rather than actual qualifications and skills.

    From affinity bias to first impressions, there are many types of hiring biases that can impact the recruitment process. But addressing and minimising these biases is critical to creating a fair and inclusive workplace, and ultimately attracting and retaining top talent.

    Employers must take proactive steps to reduce personal bias during the hiring process, including providing training to recruiters and hiring managers to recognise and combat these biases. By doing so, they can create a level playing field and ensure that the best candidate is chosen for the job.

    What are the pros and cons of unconscious bias?

    Advantages of unconscious bias

    • Faster decision-making: Implicit biases can serve as mental shortcuts, allowing us to make quicker decisions based on past experiences and stereotypes.
    • Efficient information processing: Biases can help individuals process significant amounts of information effectively, enabling them to manage complex situations and make judgments more efficiently.
    • Social cohesion: Shared implicit biases within a social group can contribute to a sense of belonging and shared identity by creating a common understanding and simplifying social interactions.

    Disadvantages of unconscious bias

    • Discrimination and stereotyping: Unconscious biases can lead to discrimination and stereotyping based on factors such as race, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, ability, or age.
    • Limiting diversity: Implicit biases may inhibit diversity in the workplace or other settings by favouring those who are similar to the decision-maker or fit within established stereotypes.
    • Affecting performance evaluation: Unconscious biases can distort objective evaluations and judgments, potentially leading to unfair treatment and adversely affecting performance management.
    • Reduced opportunities: Individuals who experience discrimination or stereotyping due to implicit biases may have limited access to opportunities for personal growth, career development, or societal advancement.

    Real world use cases of unconscious bias

    The workplace

    Unconscious bias can manifest in a range of workplace scenarios, such as the recruitment process, performance evaluation, and promotion decisions. Employers may be influenced by stereotypes related to race, gender, and ethnicity, affecting the opportunities and support provided to certain individuals.

    It is crucial for organisations to invest in unconscious bias training to raise awareness, promote diversity and inclusion, and ultimately improve business performance (Harvard Business Review).


    In the education sector, unconscious bias can affect teaching practices and academic opportunities for students. Teachers may unknowingly favour certain students or make assumptions based on race, gender, and socio-economic status.

    This may lead to widening achievement gaps and unequal access to resources, hindering the potential of diverse students. To address this issue, educational institutions should provide training programmes to help teachers recognise their biases and foster a more inclusive learning environment.


    Unconscious bias in healthcare can impact patient care and outcomes. Healthcare professionals may unknowingly make assumptions about a patient's health or treatment needs based on factors such as race, gender, or socio-economic status. This can lead to misdiagnosis, inadequate treatment options, and overall lower quality of care for certain patient groups. Healthcare organisations should prioritise unconscious bias training to ensure equal and empathetic care for all patients.

    Law enforcement

    In law enforcement, unconscious bias may manifest in how officers interact with different communities, potentially leading to racial profiling and a disproportionate focus on specific demographics. 

    Such biases can erode trust between the police and the public, impacting the overall effectiveness of law enforcement. It is crucial for police departments to address unconscious bias through training and policy changes, fostering a more equitable approach to public safety.

    How to manage and reduce unconscious bias

    Bias training

    Unconscious bias training is an approach to raise awareness about unconscious biases and educate individuals on how to identify and manage their biases effectively, as well as change their behaviour accordingly (Harvard Business Review). It is crucial to implement comprehensive training that focuses on both the understanding and the management of biases, rather than merely increasing awareness. Training should encourage participants to:

    • Recognise their biases
    • Acknowledge the impact of biases on decision-making
    • Develop strategies to counteract biases
    • Track their progress and improvements

    Effective training programmes can lead to a more inclusive work environment and contribute to reducing the impact of unconscious bias in decision-making processes.

    Blind Recruitment

    Blind recruitment is a method used to minimise unconscious bias during the hiring process by removing identifiable information from job applications, such as names, addresses, and educational institutions. This technique helps ensure that candidates are evaluated solely on their skills, experiences, and qualifications, rather than on factors that may trigger biases. Studies have shown that blind recruitment can lead to:

    • Increased diversity within the workplace
    • More objective decision-making in hiring
    • Reduced likelihood of discriminatory recruitment practices

    To learn more about this topic, please visit our blog on blind hiring.

    Diverse hiring panels

    Utilising diverse hiring panels involves incorporating individuals from varying backgrounds, skills, and perspectives to participate in the recruitment process. This approach can help counter unconscious biases, as the diverse panel is less likely to favour particular candidate traits or characteristics, thus promoting equal opportunity and inclusive hiring.

    Diverse hiring panels can lead to:

    • Decreased potential for groupthink during recruitment
    • Increased likelihood of diverse and inclusive workplaces
    • Better-rounded evaluation of candidate suitability
    By employing a combination of bias training, blind recruitment, and diverse hiring panels, organisations can effectively manage and reduce unconscious bias, resulting in more equitable and inclusive work environments.


    There are both positive and negative aspects to unconscious bias. On the one hand, it can sometimes be beneficial, as it allows our brains to make quick decisions by drawing on past experiences and information. However, the negative consequences of unconscious bias often outweigh the positive, leading to discrimination, stereotypes, and inequities in various settings such as the workplace, education, and social interactions.

    By recognising and mitigating unconscious biases, individuals and organisations can create more inclusive, equitable, and diverse environments where everyone has equal opportunities for success, free from the negative impact of stereotypes and prejudice.

    This post was written by: Alicia Edwards, Digital Marketing Assistant